Black Mauritanians face horrifying violence, enslavement, and even death if they are deported and forced to return to Mauritania. The Biden Administration and Congress can take action to keep thousands of individuals and families safe. In their home country, Black Mauritanians suffer widespread race- and ethnicity-based human rights abuses, state-sponsored violence, land grabbing, repression of free speech, forced statelessness, and slavery, making deporting Black people to Mauritania dangerous—and potentially deadly. Tragically, these conditions are largely the symptoms of a deeply-entrenched caste system that can best be described as an apartheid state. The Biden Administration must act with urgency and designate Temporary Protected Status (TPS) or Deferred Enforced Departure (DED) for Mauritania now.